PRDC®'s R&D team constantly strives to bring out new approaches to address the technical complexities.

Some of the ongoing research areas are as follows :

Areas of research in industrial domain:
  • Dynamic phasor based generator models.
  • Co-relation based fault detection.
  • Optimal placement of power stabilizers (PSS) for damping oscillations.
  • Dynamic phasor based power system event analysis.
  • Co-relation based power swing blocking.
  • Equivalent network of large wind power plant for harmonic analysis studies.
Areas of research in Academics:
  • A unit commitment model with demand response and energy storage for integration of renewable energy sources.
  • Computation of PV source penetration factor in distribution feeders keeping harmonic distortion below acceptable limit.
  • Phase and modal domain analysis of transmission lines.
  • Use of sparse matrix in Eigen value solution for a large system.
  • Power system component modeling based on shifted-frequency-analysis in phase-domain for power system transients.
  • Multi machine state space model analysis for dynamic stability studies.
  • Small signal state space modeling using SVC and HVDC links.
  • Numerical modeling of frequency dependent lines.
  • Impact of energy storage system on unit commitment problem with renewable energy sources.
  • Modeling of renewable sources for short circuit studies.

Development tools for Generation Utilities
SCHEDULING & FORECASTING FOR LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
The review of present Indian regulations and grid codes along with wind developer’s practices are studied as a part of this project. Detailed data analysis is performed for Indian systems to better understand the system behavior with present and future renewable penetration levels. Wind forecast techniques which are reported in literature and international practices are analyzed along with the forecasters in the business in India and broad guidelines with best suited forecast technique for Indian conditions are suggested. The project also discussed the role of various agencies (developers, independent scheduling coordinators, system operators) to operate the forecasting & scheduling system and its effect on power system integration.
WATER INFLOW FORECASTING (MIPWIF)
MIPWIF is designed to forecast water inflow in a dam/reservoir. Water Inflow Forecast (WIF) is used in water resource planning, power generation, irrigation and flood control. In the context of power system engineering, WIF has importance in hydrothermal co-ordination. Accurate prediction of water inflow in a reservoir helps to predict future hydro generation accurately leading to better scheduling. In deregulated environment better scheduling leads to economic operation of utilities.
HYDRO THERMAL SCHEDULING, COORDINATION AND DISPATCH
With the implementation of hydro thermal coordination (MiHTC), the system operation shows significant improvement in its ability to forecast future inflows and hydro schedules while maintaining thermal constraints. This has direct and positive impact on the overall hydro-thermal coordination. Utility will be able to plan operations over long-term and arrive at detailed generation schedules in the short-term perspective to meet physical and environmental constraints, maximize revenues and control financial risks inherent in market-based operation.
HYDRO SYSTEM MODELING (HSM)
HSM simulates the real hydro system considering the hydraulic modeling of all hydro components like reservoirs, tunnels, surge tank, penstocks, values and turbines. HSM considers the river system with travel time delays between reservoirs and water balance equation (like discharges and spills). HSM will run in offline and online mode. In online mode HSM takes the interacts with Operator Training Simulator (OTS)
MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF POWER QUALITY FOR WIND TURBINE GENERATOR
Measurements are carried out at the wind turbine terminal according to the IEC-61400-21 standard. With the taken measurements harmonics, inter-harmonics and flicker levels are computed and specified in the standard, considering measurements at different operating conditions.
RENEWABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
The integration of large scale wind generation calls for additional facility for the reliable operation of the system which includes appropriate interface between the existing facility and proposed framework. The building up of historical data from the wind farms is the basis for any wind power forecasting system and impact analysis of wind power integration in the bulk transmission system and regional grid. Characteristics of the windmills, the numerical weather predictions (NWPs) and the predicted wind power availability are additional data that must be available to produce wind power forecasts. The Wind Energy Management System (WEMS) would take care of the issue.

Development tools for Transmission Utilities
WIDE AREA MONITORING SYSTEM (WAMS) CONSULTING
The objective of this work is to recommend the latest WAMS technologies that can be implemented for enhancing system-wide visibility, control and monitoring for one of the largest Indian State Utility. As a part of this work, providing recommendations, architecture, feasibility studies, detailed project report which includes cost benefit analysis are carried out.
SMART TRANSMISSION GRID IMPLEMENTATION STUDIES
The objective of this work is to recommend the latest smart transmission grid technologies to one of the largest Indian State Utility. As a part of this work, providing recommendations on better transmission system operation, architecture, feasibility studies, detailed project report which includes cost benefit analysis are carried out.
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) IMPLEMENTATION STUDIES
The objective of this work is to recommend the latest GIS and Management Information System (MIS) technologies for one of the largest Indian State Utility. As a part of this work, providing recommendations on Information systems that can be used, feasibility studies, detailed project report which includes cost benefit analysis are carried out.
AUTOMATIC FAULT ANALYSIS SYSTEM
The objective of this work is to carry out Fault analysis from Digital relay files. Some of the features of this system are fault detection and classification, fault location, relay operation analysis, various automated reporting process.
OSCILLATION MONITORING SYSTEM
The objective of this work was to determine low frequency oscillations in the system by using PMU data. Investigations started with PMU data collected from a Load Dispatch Centre (LDC). Algorithm based on Prony analysis is used to investigate the data and arrive at necessary conclusions.
SYNCHROPHASOR (PMU) BASED APPLICATIONS
Some of the major utilities around the world have implemented synchrophasor or Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) based solutions and has realized the benefits. One of the recent outcomes, in this area,is the development of Disturbance Analysis Tool (MiPDATool) to analyze the PMU data. The tool is designed to identify the event and classify it into Fault or Load/Generation unbalance. Type of fault and quantum of power unbalance is also determined. User definable rule based configuration can be done to analyze system parameter violations. Identifying low frequency oscillations in the system is also available as part of the solution. PRDC is continuously working in the WAMS arena and has plans to develop advanced applications using PMU data to aid improve power quality, reliability, better control and more efficient grid operations.
GROUND GRID DESIGN
In this work, research is done for economic design of Ground Grid Systems in Substations for various configurations such as Square, Rectangle, L shape Grids and 2 layer soil model. G-GRID software is a substation grounding grid design and analysis program from the staple of MiPower® developers who are pioneers in providing solutions in power system engineering worldwide. G-GRID has been specially developed for Utility & industry to arrive at an economic & safe design of new grounding grids as also for checking adequacy of existing grids for possible re-enforcement. Efficient & well-proven analysis algorithms, User-friendly data entry and graphical 2-D plotting make G-GRID software an efficient tool that helps in analyzing earth potentials and enables engineers to choose a technically sound and economical design of Grounding grid from a variety of options.

Development tools for Distribution Utilities
CYCLONE RESILIENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING
With the occurrence of cyclone,the existing transmission and distribution infrastructure in the states was getting greatly affected. The quantum of damage was such that, a major part of the network has to be reconstructed. In this regard the task of preparing a detailed project report has been assigned to M/s. PRDC®. The task involves preparation of a framework for design of electrical distribution system that will be fully resilient in facing cyclones of extreme severity of wind speed of 300km/h and flood level of 2 meters. Detailed survey of 33 kV, 11 kV and LT network along with utilizing the best practices, recommendation on the critical measures and technologies that had to be adopted, towards building up a “cyclone resilient” distribution system.
SWITCHING OPTIMIZATION
Distribution system is constructed in loop but operated radially by operating the tie and sectionalizing switches. The primary objective of this project is to reduce the real power losses or reactive power consumption of a distribution system by switching these tie lines and sectionalizing switches thereby re-configuring it. It also aims at bringing the voltage and loading profile of the entire system within acceptable limits, Load balancing among feeders, etc.
OPTIMAL CAPACITOR PLACEMENT
This module suggests the location and size of capacitors that need to be placed in the distribution feeders in order to reduce the overall losses, provides voltage support in the system and increasing its capacity. The module considers the capacitors present in the system, and if required, suggests their relocation to improve their effect. Both technical and economical feasible of capacitor placement is considered in this project.
SUBSTATION PROPOSAL IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
The aim of this project is to provide the distribution utility with a module to decide a suitable location and size of 33/11 kV substation in order to reduce the loads on existing substations within a specified area. The decision of appropriate location is primarily supported by GIS, where the overloaded substations are highlighted on their map showing land-base and electrical network.
SMART CITY PROJECTS
The objective of this Project was development of algorithms for peak load management, demand response algorithms both price based and incentive based, power quality management, volt-varcontrol, load profiling and such Industrial Systems Related.

Development tools for Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Operations
Electric Arc Furnace
The objective of this work was to analyze the EAF operations for the tap-to-tap duration of the melt cycle for any given scrap composition and hence generate a report having recommendations to improve the furnace operation. The analysis will give an idea about the point at which the furnace is presently operating and indicates improvements, if there are any, and the deviations from the optimal operating condition. Various arc furnace parameters like, arc impedance, arc stability, energy consumption, refractory wear indices, circle diagrams, optimum transformer-reactor tap settings, regulation response and such are computed as a part of this module.
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